Untreated sewage is not only a major cause of pathogenic diseases, but also a major source of other pollutants, including oxygen-demanding waste, plant nutrients (N and P), and toxic heavy metals. An unpolluted water body with respect to oxygen is a turbulent river that flows through a natural forest. It attacks the central nervous system and can damage the respiratory system, bladder, lungs, liver, and kidneys. Sometimes soil must be excavated and sent to a landfill. After several months only about 15% of the original volume may remain, but it is in thick asphalt lumps, a form that is particularly harmful to birds, fish, and shellfish. Then, this pollution is carried into surface water bodies and groundwater. Although natural processes such as volcanic eruptions or evaporation sometimes can cause water pollution, most pollution is derived from human, land-based activities (see Figure Water Pollution). As discussed in Module Climate Processes; External and Internal Controls, the most important processes that affect the salinity of natural waters are evaporation, which distills nearly pure water and leaves the dissolved ions in the original water, and chemical weathering, which involves mineral dissolution that adds dissolved ions to water. According to the World Health Organization, in 2008 approximately 880 million people in the world (or 13% of world population) did not have access to improved (safe) drinking water (World Health Statistics, 2010) (See Figure Proportion of Population by Country Using Improved Drinking Water Sources in 2008). Other chemicals that exhibit biomagnification are DDT, PCBs, and arsenic. Early European water legislation began, in a "first wave", with standards for those of our rivers and lakes used for drinking water abstraction in 1975, and culminated in 1980 in setting binding quality targets for our drinking water. Simple and inexpensive techniques for treating water at home include chlorination, filters, and solar disinfection. The major source of dead organic matter in most natural waters is sewage; grass and leaves are smaller sources. Unfortunately, many of the wells produced water naturally rich in arsenic. State the purpose of the fecal coliform test. Distinguish among primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments for wastewater. The contamination of lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and other water bodies leads to water pollution, which can be natural or human induced. Mercury and methylmercury are present in only very small concentrations in seawater; however, at the base of the food chain algae absorb methylmercury. This explains why N and P are major ingredients in most fertilizer. Marine (ocean) pollution as a subset of surface water pollution 3. Effects of Water Pollution Water pollutants can have an effect on both the ecology of ecosystems and on humans. Persistent organic pollutants are long-lived in the environment, accumulate through the food chain (bioaccumulation), and can be toxic. A polluted water body with respect to oxygen is a stagnant deep lake in an urban setting with a combined sewer system. The dissolved oxygen content in such a river ranges from 10 to 14 ppm O2, BOD is low, and clean-water fish, e.g., bass, trout, and perch dominate. Specific things that we can do to reduce urban runoff include the following: keep soil, leaves, and grass clippings off driveways, sidewalks, and streets; don’t pour used motor oil, antifreeze, paints, pesticides, or any household hazardous chemical down the storm sewer or drain; recycle used motor oil; use hazardous waste disposal programs offered by the community; compost your organic waste; don’t use fertilizers and herbicides on your lawn; and flush pet waste down the toilet. Our Water Crisis Lesson Plans, for grades K-12, are packed with engaging lesson for students.Written by a certified teacher with a busy professional in mind, we're sure you'll find the activities useful out-of-the-box or as a great head start. Proportion of Population by Country Using Improved Drinking Water Sources in 2008 Improved drinking water sources, e.g., household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells and springs, and rainwater collections, are defined as those more likely to provide safe water than unimproved water sources, e.g., unprotected wells and springs, vendor-provided water, bottled water (unless water for other uses is available from an improved source), and tanker truck-provided water. 2019 Teacher Guide: Water Pollution Learning Objectives Students will… Learn about the causes and consequences of four types of water pollution: o Toxic pollution o Sediment pollution o Nutrient pollution o Bacterial pollution Classify real-world examples of water pollution. The numerous processing steps at a conventional sewage treatment plant (see Figure Steps at a Sewage Treatment Plant) include pretreatment (screening and removal of sand and gravel), primary treatment (settling or floatation to remove organic solids, fat, and grease), secondary treatment (aerobic bacterial decomposition of organic solids), tertiary treatment (bacterial decomposition of nutrients and filtration), disinfection (treatment with chlorine, ozone, ultraviolet light, or bleach), and either discharge to surface waters (usually a local river) or reuse for some other purpose, such as irrigation, habitat preservation, and artificial groundwater recharge. Hard water contains abundant calcium and magnesium, which reduces its ability to develop soapsuds and enhances scale (calcium and magnesium carbonate minerals) formation on hot water equipment. Each year approximately 1.7 million people die from diarrheal diseases associated with unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene, e.g., hand washing with soap. Any natural water contains dissolved chemicals; some of these are important human nutrients, while others can be harmful to human health. For example, Solanki et al. Also how it is up to the community to keep the environment free of pollution. 8. Water pollutants can move through different water reservoirs, as the water carrying them progresses through stages of the water cycle (see Figure Sources of Water Contamination). Surface water pollution 2. Why are people facing a crisis involving water pollution and how can we solve it? Bottled water is not a sustainable solution to the water crisis, despite exponential growth in popularity in the U.S. and the world. In the U.S., the Clean Water Act of 1972 and later amendments led to major improvements in water quality (see Sidebar Clean Water Act). Water pollution is one of the major environmental issues in India. Algal Bloom in River in Sichuan, China Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society. Oxygen-demanding waste is an extremely important pollutant to ecosystems. The World Health Organization has called it the largest mass poisoning of a population in history. If you don’t like the taste of your tap water, then please use a water filter instead of bottled water! A famous mercury poisoning case in Minamata, Japan involved methylmercury-rich industrial discharge that caused high Hg levels in fish. Thick mats of floating and rooted green or sometimes red algae (see Figure Algal Bloom in River in Sichuan, China) create water pollution, damage the ecosystem by clogging fish gills and blocking sunlight, and damage lake aesthetics by making recreation difficult and creating an eyesore. Arsenic and mercury are discussed in more detail below. The concentrated organic solid produced during primary and secondarytreatment is called sludge, which is treated in a variety of ways including landfill disposal, incineration, use as fertilizer, and anaerobic bacterial decomposition, which is done in the absence of oxygen. Water pollution problems occur if the septic tank malfunctions, which usually occurs when a system is established in the wrong type of soil or maintained poorly. Learning Objectives. A common cleanup method called pump and treat involves pumping out the contaminated groundwater and treating it by oxidation, filtration, or biological methods. Resolution of the global water pollution crisis described at the beginning of this section requires multiple approaches to improve the quality of our fresh water and move towards sustainability. Express to the children how the environment cannot survive without clean air, water, and land. For a population of 7.8 billion growing at a rate of 82 million every year we have very little freshwater. Then, bacteria begin to decompose the remaining oil, in a process that can take many years. Our Water Pollution lesson plan introduces students to water pollution, with a summary related to overall pollution. At the same time, about 2.6 billion people (or 40% of world population) lived without improved sanitation (see Figure Proportion of Population by Country Using Improved Sanitation Facilities in 2008), which is defined as having access to a public sewage system, septic tank, or even a simple pit latrine. Most groundwater contamination occurs in shallow, unconfined aquifers located near the contamination source. The amount of oxygen used by aerobic (in the presence of oxygen) bacterial decomposition of organic matter is called biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). In Gallup public polls conducted over the past decade Americans consistently put water pollution and water supply as the top environmental concerns over issues such as air pollution, deforestation, species extinction, and global warming. Advanced deep-learning algorithms are increasingly used for the analysis of water quality data [18, 130, 131]. Artificial aeration or mechanical mixing can remediate lakes with oxygen depletion. Describe how pollution results in decreased dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, ... What is the relationship between bacteria and water pollution? Sometimes the best solution is to stop the pollution source and allow natural cleanup. Similarly, at the international level the World Health Organization has drinking water standards for a variety of contaminants. Tragically, there are an estimated 77 million people (about half of the population) who inadvertently may have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic in Bangladesh as a result. (pollution, environment, littering) 10 min: Show illustrations of different kinds of pollution; land, water, and air. Some chemical pollutants have serious and well-known health effects; however, many others have poorly known long-term health effects. The objectives of this review were to ... and increasing pollutant loads from climate and land use changes into freshwater ecosystems. Course Outcome: • Understanding of air/water pollution regulations and their scientific basis Nonpoint sources of pollution include agricultural fields, cities, and abandoned mines. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to: discuss the costs and benefits of desalination as a solution to water scarcity; explain the benefits of water re-use; describe the advantages and disadvantages of water optioning and water banking; evaluate multiple approaches for safeguarding against water scarcity For many developing countries, financial aid is necessary to build adequate sewage treatment facilities; however, the World Health Organization estimates an estimated cost savings of between $3 and $34 for every $1 invested in clean water delivery and sanitation (Water for Life, 2005). Define national emission limitation and specify the water legislation it relates to. During heavy rain, storm water runoff may exceed sewer capacity, causing it to back up and spilling untreated sewage into surface waters (see Figure Combined Sewer System). Discuss how sewage is related to eutrophication, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and dissolved oxygen. Contaminant Plume in Groundwater Mapping how a contaminant plume will migrate once it reaches groundwater requires understanding of the pollutant’s chemical properties, local soil characteristics, and how permeable the aquifer is. By the time groundwater contamination is detected, the entity responsible for the pollution may be bankrupt or nonexistent. Prevention practices are essential for preserving wetlands, groundwater sources and other critical ecosystems - areas in which we especially want to stop pollution before it begins. Learning Objectives. List and briefly describe eight categories of water pollutants. As a result, the pollution in groundwater may create a contaminant plume, a large body of flowing polluted groundwater (see Figure Contaminant Plume in Groundwater), making cleanup very costly. After the rain stops, the stored water goes to the sewage treatment plant for processing. Source: Kai Schumann via National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Aquatic Dead Zones Zones of hypoxia shown as red circles. To reduce water pollution problems, separate sewer systems (where street runoff goes to rivers and only wastewater goes to a wastewater treatment plant) are much better than combined sewer systems, which can overflow and release untreated sewage into surface waters during heavy rain. An arsenic concentration of 1 ppm means 1 part of arsenic per million parts of water. In addition to the global waterborne disease crisis, chemical pollution from agriculture, industry, cities, and mining threatens global water quality. As a result, fish, amphibians, reptiles, insects, arachnids, invertebrates and mammals that are part of a polluted water ecosystem die or are restricted in their natural habitat. Pollutants enter water supplies from point sources, which are readily identifiable and relatively small locations, or nonpoint sources, which are large and more diffuse areas. Learning Objectives Water What impact do I want this module experience to have on students, which will still be there a year or more after the course is over? More progress is needed because currently the EPA considers over 40,000 U.S. water bodies as impaired, most commonly due to pathogens, metals, plant nutrients, and oxygen depletion. During the early 1900s rapid industrialization in the U.S. resulted in widespread water pollution due to free discharge of waste into surface waters. In such a lake, the dissolved O2 content is ≤5 ppm O2, BOD is high, and low O2-tolerant fish, e.g., carp and catfish dominate. Water Pollution Obvious water pollution in the form of floating debris; invisible water pollutants sometimes can be much more harmful than visible ones. This separation of the electrical charge within a water molecule results in hydrogen bonds with other water molecules, mineral surfaces (hydrogen bonding produces the water films on minerals in the unsaturated zone of the subsurface), and dissolved ions (atoms with a negative or positive charge). The students will also see pictures of water pollution and begin to develop an idea of the causes and sources of water pollution. In addition, the size and number of marine hypoxic zones have grown dramatically over the past 50 years (see Figure Aquatic Dead Zones), including a very large dead zone located offshore Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico. Of course, pollution in rivers may simply move to another reservoir, such as the ocean, where it can cause further problems. Foundational Knowledge Key information: 1.1 | Understand that water is both available and contaminated through the hydrological cycle. Groundwater pollution can occur from underground sources and all of the pollution sources that contaminate surface waters. Pathogens are disease-causing microorganisms, e.g., viruses, bacteria, parasitic worms, and protozoa, which cause a variety of intestinal diseases such as dysentery, typhoid fever, hepatitis, and cholera. This topic identifies the key learning points of the forms of water, composition and chemistry of water, water pollution, mineral, mining and processing ore. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/waterforlife.pdf, World Health Statistics (2010) World Health Organization. Water softeners remove calcium and magnesium, which allows the water to lather easily and resist scale formation. Most surface water in contact with the atmosphere has a small amount of dissolved oxygen, which is needed by aquatic organisms for cellular respiration. Compared to other molecules of similar molecular weight, water (H2O) has unique physical properties including high values for melting and boiling point, surface tension (water’s cohesion, or “stickiness”), and capacity to dissolve soluble minerals, i.e., act as a solvent. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency via Wikimedia Commons. Source: Stephen Codrington at Wikimedia Commons, Sources of Water Contamination Sources of some water pollutants and movement of pollutants into different water reservoirs of the water cycle. Cleanup operations can include skimmer ships that vacuum oil from the water surface (effective only for small spills), controlled burning (works only in early stages before the light, ignitable part evaporates but also pollutes the air), dispersants (detergents that break up oil to accelerate its decomposition, but some dispersants may be toxic to the ecosystem), and bioremediation (adding microorganisms that specialize in quickly decomposing oil, but this can disrupt the natural ecosystem). Bacteria decompose dead organic matter (chemically represented in a simplified way as CH2O) and remove dissolved oxygen (O2) according to the following reaction: Too much decaying organic matter in water is a pollutant because it removes oxygen from water, which can kill fish, shellfish, and aquatic insects. The main purpose of a sewage treatment plant is to remove organic matter (oxygen-demanding waste) and kill bacteria; special methods also can be used to remove plant nutrients and other pollutants. Learning Objectives. Almost all of these deaths are in developing countries, and around 90% of them occur among children under the age of 5 (see Figure Deaths by Country from Diarrhea Caused by Unsafe Water, Unimproved Sanitation, and Poor Hygiene in Children Less than 5 Years Old, 2004). The cost savings are from health care savings, gains in work and school productivity, and deaths prevented. Even in developed countries, water pollution affects human and environmental health. In many underdeveloped countries, sewage is discharged into local waters either untreated or after only rudimentary treatment. In this module, the following topics will be covered: 1) water pollutants and how they degrade water quality, 2) the lack of safe drinking water in some parts of the world , 3) sewage treatment 4) the difficult process to remediate groundwater pollution, and 5) solutions for the crisis involving water pollution. Common sources of groundwater pollution are leaking underground storage tanks for fuel, septic tanks, agricultural activity, and landfills. Hard water develops naturally from the dissolution of calcium and magnesium carbonate minerals in soil; it does not have negative health effects in people. Biomagnification An illustrative example of biomagnification of mercury from water through the food chain and into a bird’s egg. Pollution is damaging or contaminating our environment due to the human actions or natural disasters. Fresh water is commonly defined as containing less than either 1,000 or 500 ppm TDS, but the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that drinking water not exceed 500 ppm TDS or else it will have an unpleasant salty taste. Source: U.S. Geological Survey. It also included quality objective legislation on fish waters, shellfish waters, bathing waters and groundwaters. Water with pathogens can be remediated by adding chlorine or ozone, by boiling, or by treating the sewage in the first place. Description. In the methylmercury form (CH3Hg+) it is highly toxic; ≥ 1 ppb of methylmercury represents water contaminated with mercury. Water pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies such as rivers, seas, lakes, groundwater, etc. The basic components of a septic tank system (see Figure Septic System) include a sewer line from the house, a septic tank (a large container where sludge settles to the bottom and microorganisms decompose the organic solids anaerobically), and the drain field (network of perforated pipes where the clarified water seeps into the soil and is further purified by bacteria). Specific treatment methods depend on the geology, hydrology, and pollutant because some light contaminants flow on top of groundwater, others dissolve and flow with groundwater, and dense contaminants can sink below groundwater. Many minerals and pollutants dissolve readily in water because water forms hydration shells (spheres of loosely coordinated, oriented water molecules) around ions. 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